Index Options Settlement Explained

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    The Best Binary Options Broker 2020!
    Perfect For Beginners!
    Free Trading Education, Free Demo Account!
    Get Your Sing-Up Bonus Now!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Broker. Only For Experienced Traders!

Index Options: Settlement

For practical purposes, index options are generally cash-settled options. This makes sense as you can imagine the hassle involved in transferring hundreds of underlying stocks during an assignment, not to mention the enormous amounts of fees involved. Hence, only the representative amount in cash changes hands when cash-settled index options are exercised.

Exercise Settlement Amount

The amount payable by the index option contract writer is known as the exercise settlement amount and is defined as:

Exercise Settlement Amount = (Difference between Index Value and the Strike Price) x Contract Multiplier

As can be seen from the above formula, the main determinant of the exercise settlement value is the index value which is primarily affected by the prices of the underlying securites. To a lesser extent, the index value is also influenced by the index option’s settlement style.

Settlement Styles

Depending on the settlement style of the index option, the reported level of the index may differ materially when the option is exercised. Consequently, this affects the exercise settlement value. The two most common settlement styles are A.M. settlement and P.M. settlement.

AM Settlement

With AM settlement, the index value is calculated based on the opening prices of the index’s component securities on the day of exercise.

PM Settlement

With PM settlement, the index value is calculated based on the closing prices of the index’s component securities on the day of exercise.

You May Also Like

Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    The Best Binary Options Broker 2020!
    Perfect For Beginners!
    Free Trading Education, Free Demo Account!
    Get Your Sing-Up Bonus Now!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Broker. Only For Experienced Traders!

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Index Option

What is an Index Option?

An index option is a financial derivative that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the value of an underlying index, such as the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500, at the stated exercise price on or before the expiration date of the option. No actual stocks are bought or sold; index options are always cash-settled, and are typically European-style options.

Basics of an Index Option

Index call and put options are simple and popular tools used by investors, traders and speculators to profit on the general direction of an underlying index while putting very little capital at risk. The profit potential for long index call options is unlimited, while the risk is limited to the premium amount paid for the option, regardless of the index level at expiration. For long index put options, the risk is also limited to the premium paid, and the potential profit is capped at the index level, less the premium paid, as the index can never go below zero.

Beyond potentially profiting from general index level movements, index options can be used to diversify a portfolio when an investor is unwilling to invest directly in the index’s underlying stocks. Index options can also be used in multiple ways to hedge specific risks in a portfolio. American-style index options can be exercised at any time before the expiration date, while European-style index options can only be exercised on the expiration date.

Key Takeaways

  • Index options are options to buy or sell the value of an underlying index.
  • Index options have downside that is limited to the amount of premium paid and upside that is unlimited.

Index Option Examples

Imagine a hypothetical index called Index X, which has a level of 500. Assume an investor decides to purchase a call option on Index X with a strike price of 505. With index options, the contract has a multiplier that determines the overall price. Usually the multiplier is 100. If, for example, this 505 call option is priced at $11, the entire contract costs $1,100, or $11 x 100.

It is important to note the underlying asset in this contract is not any individual stock or set of stocks but rather the cash level of the index adjusted by the multiplier. In this example, it is $50,000, or 500 x $100. Instead of investing $50,000 in the stocks of the index, an investor can buy the option at $1,100 and utilize the remaining $48,900 elsewhere.

The risk associated with this trade is limited to $1,100. The break-even point of an index call option trade is the strike price plus the premium paid. In this example, that is 516, or 505 plus 11. At any level above 516, this particular trade becomes profitable. If the index level was 530 at expiration, the owner of this call option would exercise it and receive $2,500 in cash from the other side of the trade, or (530 – 505) x $100. Less the initial premium paid, this trade results in a profit of $1,400.

Index Option Trading

Introduced in 1981, stock index options are options whose underlying is not a single stock but an index comprising many stocks. Investors and speculators trade index options to gain exposure to the entire market or specific segments of the market with a single trading decision and often thru one transaction. Obtaining the same level of diversification using individual stocks or individual stock options require numerous transactions and consequently slower decision making and higher costs.

Leverage & Predetermined Risk for the Buyer

Like equity options, trading index options gives the investor leverage and predetermined risk. The index option buyer gains leverage as the premium paid relative to the contract value is small. Consequently, for a small percentage moves of the underlying index, the index option holder can see large percentage gains for his position. Furthermore, risk is predetermined as the most the index option trader can lose is the premium paid to hold the options.

Contract Multiplier

Stock index options typically have a contract multiplier of $100. The contract multiplier is used to compute the cash value of each index option contract.

Premium

Similar to equity options, index options premiums are quoted in dollars and cents. The price of a single equity index option contract can be determined by multiplying the quoted premium amount by the contract multiplier. This is the amount that an index option buyer will need to pay to purchase the option and the amount that the index option writer will receive when selling the option.

Rights Conferred

As index options are cash-settled options, the holder of an index option does not possess the right to purchase or sell the underlying stocks of the index but rather, he or she is entitled to demand the equivalent cash value from the option writer upon exercising his option.

You May Also Like

Continue Reading.

Buying Straddles into Earnings

Buying straddles is a great way to play earnings. Many a times, stock price gap up or down following the quarterly earnings report but often, the direction of the movement can be unpredictable. For instance, a sell off can occur even though the earnings report is good if investors had expected great results. [Read on. ]

Writing Puts to Purchase Stocks

If you are very bullish on a particular stock for the long term and is looking to purchase the stock but feels that it is slightly overvalued at the moment, then you may want to consider writing put options on the stock as a means to acquire it at a discount. [Read on. ]

What are Binary Options and How to Trade Them?

Also known as digital options, binary options belong to a special class of exotic options in which the option trader speculate purely on the direction of the underlying within a relatively short period of time. [Read on. ]

Investing in Growth Stocks using LEAPS® options

If you are investing the Peter Lynch style, trying to predict the next multi-bagger, then you would want to find out more about LEAPS® and why I consider them to be a great option for investing in the next Microsoft®. [Read on. ]

Effect of Dividends on Option Pricing

Cash dividends issued by stocks have big impact on their option prices. This is because the underlying stock price is expected to drop by the dividend amount on the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Bull Call Spread: An Alternative to the Covered Call

As an alternative to writing covered calls, one can enter a bull call spread for a similar profit potential but with significantly less capital requirement. In place of holding the underlying stock in the covered call strategy, the alternative. [Read on. ]

Dividend Capture using Covered Calls

Some stocks pay generous dividends every quarter. You qualify for the dividend if you are holding on the shares before the ex-dividend date. [Read on. ]

Leverage using Calls, Not Margin Calls

To achieve higher returns in the stock market, besides doing more homework on the companies you wish to buy, it is often necessary to take on higher risk. A most common way to do that is to buy stocks on margin. [Read on. ]

Day Trading using Options

Day trading options can be a successful, profitable strategy but there are a couple of things you need to know before you use start using options for day trading. [Read on. ]

What is the Put Call Ratio and How to Use It

Learn about the put call ratio, the way it is derived and how it can be used as a contrarian indicator. [Read on. ]

Understanding Put-Call Parity

Put-call parity is an important principle in options pricing first identified by Hans Stoll in his paper, The Relation Between Put and Call Prices, in 1969. It states that the premium of a call option implies a certain fair price for the corresponding put option having the same strike price and expiration date, and vice versa. [Read on. ]

Understanding the Greeks

In options trading, you may notice the use of certain greek alphabets like delta or gamma when describing risks associated with various positions. They are known as “the greeks”. [Read on. ]

Valuing Common Stock using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

Since the value of stock options depends on the price of the underlying stock, it is useful to calculate the fair value of the stock by using a technique known as discounted cash flow. [Read on. ]

Best Binary Options Brokers 2020:
  • Binarium
    Binarium

    The Best Binary Options Broker 2020!
    Perfect For Beginners!
    Free Trading Education, Free Demo Account!
    Get Your Sing-Up Bonus Now!

  • Binomo
    Binomo

    Good Broker. Only For Experienced Traders!

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Binary Options Guide For Beginners
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: